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When and between whom was the battle of Panipat fought

When and between whom was the battle of Panipat fought
Written by SarkariNotes

When and between whom was the battle of Panipat fought:- Battles of Panipat, (1526, 1556, 1761), three military engagements, significant in the history of northern India, fought in Panipat, a flat plain suitable for cavalry moves, about 50 miles (80 km) north of Delhi.

An overwhelmingly outnumbered Mughal force prevailed at Panipat.

It was due to the resourcefulness of its commander, Babur, demonstrated in his use of field fortifications and his instinctive sense of the value of this firepower of gunpowder.

The success allowed him to lay the bases for the Indian Mughal Empire.

A descendant of Timur, Babur turned into a refugee at the age of twelve when the Uzbeks seized Samarkand in 1494.

At age fifteen, he was back with his Warband. He laid siege to his home city, but without success.

Undaunted, he led south to Afghanistan. Capturing Kabul in 1504, he made it his base for raids to Central Asia’s Transoxania area.

More importantly, however, he found himself tempted by the incredible wealth of India.

In the years that followed, mounted a series of incursions into Punjab.

These lands had for three decades belonged to a Muslim kingdom, the Delhi sultanate.

Although its prestige had been severely damaged by Timur’s triumph of 1398, it remained a dominant presence in northern India.

At this time, the sultanate was under the control of an Afghan elite.

A careless and divisive ruler, Sultan Ibrahim Lodi had alienated many of his nobles.

It was indeed a local lord in Hindustan who, in 1523, encouraged Babur to undertake a full-scale invasion.

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Though the notion of invasion attracted him, Babur was no hurry.

His army numbered only 10,000 men, so he made sure that they were well equipped and beautifully trained before committing to his assault on Hindustan.

He took the opportunity to train them in using gunpowder weapons while making sure their abilities in conventional steppe war were not neglected.

Only at the end of 1525 did he embark on his invasion.

First Battle Of Panipat (1526)

His military swept aside the Afghan force, which flew out to meet it, so Sultan Ibrahim himself led another army into the area, taking up a position at Panipat, to the north of Delhi.

On 12 April 1526, Babur found himself faced with a great multitude: 100,000 men and 1,000 elephants.

Unfazed, he set about constructing an impromptu fortress on the open plain, tying 700 carts collectively and fronting them with earthen ramparts as security for his cannon and his musketeers with their matchlocks.

Since the days passed and a reluctant Sultan Ibrahim stayed his assault, Babur managed to consolidate his position still further.

He dug trenches and felled trees, constructing barriers to the right and left while leaving gaps through which his cavalry may bill.

who won the First battle of panipat

On 21 April, Ibrahim eventually made his move. His troops jumped forward, only to be brought up short by Babur’s fortifications.

As they milled about in confusion, the Mughal cavalry came to wheeling in by the wings: the sultan’s force adequately encompassed.

At this point, Babur’s gunners opened up their bombardment from supporting their barrier, shooting at point-blank range to this close-packed mass. Unable to advance or retreat, the Afghan army cut cruelly.

Not merely was Babur currently the undisputed ruler of Hindustan, but also the path to Delhi along with the domain names of the sultanate lay wide open.

Based on this victory, he managed to establish a glorious new ruling line.

Despite its creator’s Timurid origins–and of the Mongol antecedents of Timur himself–that was to be known as the Mughal, or Mogul, dynasty.

This victory marked the beginning of the Mughal Empire in India.

First battle of panipat results

Losses: Mughal, unknown; Afghan, 20,000–50,000.

The Mughal Empire’s expansion, stalled after the death of its creator Babur at 1530, began anew under Babur’s grandson, Akbar.

Fighting on a field that had established so hopeful for his grandfather, the young Akbar won a crucial victory over the powerful Hindu ruler, Hemu.

Babur’s son Humayun had struck severe setbacks, even dropping his kingdom after it had been conquered by the Pashtun warlord Sher Shah Suri in 1540.

Rebuilding his forces in exile, he eventually took back his realms fifteen years later, leaving his son and successor, Akbar, with a fantastic empire.

To the east of Akbar’s lands, the Suri overall Hemu had put himself up as a strongman ruler; calling himself a king, he constructed a power base in Bengal.

Aged just thirteen, Akbar appeared responsibly ill-equipped to deal with this threat.

But he’d like infrequent gifts–along with the aid of his guardian, the accomplished general Bairam Khan.

Hemu had unstoppable momentum; it appeared —with already taken Agra along with the strategic fortress of Tughlaqabad, in October 1556 he captured Delhi.

Too late to rescue the town, Akbar’s army let it go and ceased on the plains to the north, at Panipat.

Second Battle of Panipat (1556)

On 5 November 1556, the scene was set for the Second Battle of Panipat.

Repeated elephant charges failed to break the resolve of their outnumbered Mughal soldiers.

An inspiring figure, Hemu led from the front, perched high on an elephant, an essential talisman for his troops.

He was also a tempting target for the Mughal archers, and initially, they showered him shafts to no avail.

Therefore impregnable was that the head-to-foot armor he was wearing.

Eventually, though, one arrow found its way in via an eye-slit and murdered him. Seeing their leader fall, the Hindus returned and broke.

The next conflict (Jan. 14, 1761) finished the Maratha effort to triumph that the Mughals as rulers of India and marked the virtual end of the Mughal empire.

The Maratha military, under the Bhao Sahib, uncle of the Peshwa (chief minister), was trapped and destroyed by the Afghan main Aḥmad Shah Durrānī.

Ahmad declared a jihad and started a campaign that captured large parts of Punjab.

The Marathas responded by raising a vast army, under the control of Sadashivrao Bhau, and recaptured Delhi.

At the same time, he led an army of 40,000 into the south to snare the Maratha army in Punjab.

Cut off and starving, Bhau decided to split Ahmad’s blockade, spawning the two armies to confront at Panipat.

The former attempted to pulverize the latter’s army with a massive artillery bombardment and then utilize his superiority in numbers to violate the Durrani blockade and move south at a defensive posture.

However, he was undermined by rivalries in his positions and also the need to safeguard several civilians.

Durrani started a surprise assault before the artillery that had inflicted severe damage, and Bhau’s nephew was killed.

The Maratha commander entered the battle to recover his nephew’s body, but his troops thought him dead as well as their morale plummeted.

The smaller Durrani army took advantage and routed them. Bhau escaped to die sometime later, but the Maratha army ruined, and the unity of the empire had broken.

It started 40 years of anarchy in northwestern India and cleared the way for later British supremacy.

Losses: Maratha, 40,000 casualties and 30,000 captured of 80,000; Durrani, 5,000 casualties of 40,000–75,000.

who won the second battle of panipat November 5, 1556


The Second Battle of Panipat was fought between the forces of Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, popularly calledHemu, the Hindu king.

He was judgment North India from Delhi, along with the army of Akbar, on November 5, 1556.


Background


On January 24, 1556, the Mughal ruler Humanyun expired in Delhi and had been succeeded by his son, Akbar Kalanaur, who was only thirteen years old.

On February 14, 1556, Akbar was crowned as the king. Akbar was then campaigning in Kabul along with his protector, Bairam Khan.

Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya or Hemu was a Hindu emperor at Delhi by defeating Akbar/Humanyun’s army in the Battle for Delhi.

The home belonged to Rewari in present-day Haryana, who previously was an advisor to Sher Shah Suri’s son Islam Shah from 1545 to 1553.

Hemu had won 22 conflicts, as Prime Minister and Chief of Army of Islam Shah, from 1553 to 1556 to quell the rebellion by Afghan rebels against the Sur regime.

In the time of Humayun’s death in January 1556, Hemu had only quelled a rebellion in Bengal, killing the Bengal ruler Muhammad Shah from the war.

He made his intentions of winning Delhi for himself known to his commanders.

He then began a campaign, winning conflicts throughout northern India.

A vast region of Etawah, Kalpi, and Agra states containing present-day Bihar and UP came under Hemu’s control. In the Gwalior, Fort Hemu consolidated his military by recruiting more Hindus.

who won the second battle of panipat

Hemu subsequently moved towards Delhi and stationed his forces beyond the city at Tughlaqabad. On October 6, 1556, the military struck Mughal resistance.

Following a fierce fight, Akbar’s forces were ousted, and Tardi Beg, the commander of the Mughal troops, escaped, letting Hemu capture Delhi.

Approximately 3,000 Mughals killed. Hemu was crowned at Purana Qila on October 7, 1556, also recognized Hindu rule in North India, after 350 decades of Muslim rule, and was bestowed the title of Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya.

According to Abul Fazl at Akbarnama, Hemu was preparing for an assault on Kabul and made several changes in his army.

Second battle of panipat results

Developments in Delhi and Agra disturbed the Mughals in Kalanaur, Punjab.

Many Mughal Generals advised Akbar to escape to Kabul as Mughal forces may not face Hemu’s may and new consciousness among Hindus to liberate their country.

Still, Bairam Khan decided in favor of war. On November 5, both armies met at the historic battle of Panipat, in which, thirty years before, Akbar’s grandfather Babur had defeated Ibrahim Lodi in what’s now known as the First Battle of Panipat.

H.G.Keen writes, “Akbar and his defender Bairam Khan didn’t participate in the battle and were stationed 5 Kos (8 miles) away from the war zone.

Bairam Khan didn’t permit the 13-year-old child King to be present in battle area in person, rather he was provided with a special guard of 5000 well trained and many faithful troops and has been stationed at a secure distance far from the battle lines.

He had been instructed by Bairam Khan to flee towards Kabul for life in the event the Mughal Army was hauled from the battle.” Hemu led himself.

Here’s military consisted of 1500 war elephants along with a vanguard of artillery park. Hemu marched in excellent order with 30,000 practiced horse riders composed of Rajputs and Afghans who, on many occasions, had by their exploits increased the pride and arrogance.

To be able to hearten the soldiers and the Afghan Amirs, Hemu had awarded gifts of lands and opened up the doors of his paintings.

Following Badaoni, Hemu’s military was dispirited, and who put all his hopes on the dinosaurs, surrounded by his chiefs charged the imperial hosts, and threw both right and left wings into great confusion.

The Mughal forces were charged repeatedly by elephants to break their lines.

The Mughal Vanguard, according to resources, consisted of 10,000 cavalries, out of which 5000 were experienced veteran soldiers, and they have ready to meet the advancing army of Hemu.

Hemu was himself commanding his forces from atop an elephant. It appeared Hemu was on a winning track, and Akbar’s army would rout.

Abul Fazl has described the war as a quote”Two armies, therefore, collided that they struck fire out of the water; you would say the air was crimsoned. Their steel had all become strong rubies”

abruptly in the middle of the contest, an arrow in the bent bow of divine anger reached Hemu’s eye, and piercing the socket, came out at the back of his head.

From the words of Badaoni too,”suddenly the arrow of death which no defense can ward off struck his (Hemu) squinting eye so that his brain passed cleanout from the cup of his head, and he became unconscious and never to be seen within his Howdy.

Not visiting Hemu within his howdah, Hemu’s army was in disarray and defeated in the resulting confusion.

between who was the second battle of panipat fought

Several hours following the war ended, lifeless Hemu was situated and seized by Shah Quli Khan Mahram and brought to Akbar’s tent at the camp located at village Saudhapur at Panipat (Located on the Panipat-Jind street, 5 km from NH1).

General Bairam Khan was desirous that Akbar should slay the Hindu king Hemu himself and ought to set his right to the title of”Ghazi” (Champion of Faith or war veteran).

But Akbar refused to strike blood saturated and lifeless enemy but smote the dead body, simply to be known as a Ghazi.

Bairam Khan, annoyed by Akbar’s scruples, beheaded the king himself.

Hemu’s supporters constructed a Cenotaph on the website of the beheading, which exists in the village Saudhapur, on Jind Road in Panipat.

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